The word agriculture means the main livelihood of the people. The main food needs of the people depend on how well the agriculture department of bihar for the particular state or country is. There are different states which produce only certain food types. It all depends on what season is presently going in the country or state. Agriculture mainly refers to the crop production of the state. Agriculture is the very old and the best tradition for food production. Even with the high quality of technology, there are no updates that can compete and cross the practice of agriculture.

When talking about Agriculture, the first thing which comes to mind is farming. Without proper and appropriate farming no farm or crop can be grown correctly. Growing a crop is not an easy thing, it requires a lot of courage and hard work to grow a specific crop. And not only does farming requires the dedication of the farmer but also the cooperation of the weather or the climate presently going on. And what food we eat today is the hard work of farmers who have given all their best in taking care of the crop. There are a few must-follow rules for the farmer which has to be followed while farming.


Agriculture is the key to the overall department of the state economy. Bihar is located in the Eastern part of the country between eighty-three minutes to thirty seconds to eight minutes long longitude. Although the outlet of the sea through the port of Kolkata is not too far away, it is an entirely land lock state. Bihar is situated halfway around moist West Bengal in the east and sub-humid Uttar Pradesh in the west, giving it a climate, economic, and cultural transitional position.

It is bounded by Nepal in the north and by Jharkhand in the south. The river Ganga that flows from the West to the East in the center of the Bihar plain is divided into two different halfways. Agriculture is the backbone of Bihar’s economy seventy-seven percent of the workforce and generating nearly twenty-four point eighty-four percent 24.84% of the states.


The vision of the agriculture policy in the state is to increase the productivity of major crops to bring them close to the national average. Increased production at competitive prices has been necessitated by the opening up of markets. It’s also crucial to adapt and popularize proven research and development efforts. In Bihar, the percentage of people employed in the agriculture production system is estimated to be 77%, which is significantly higher than the national average. Nearly twenty-four points eighty-four percent 24.84% of Gross Domestic Product, the GDP of the state (2011-12), has been from the agriculture sector (including forestry and fishing).

In terms of food grain production, the state has achieved self-sufficiency. Apart from maize and pulses, Bihar’s farm productivity is significantly lower than the national average. Even though the amount of land under cultivation is decreasing, there is still a lot of room for income generation by increasing productivity. Droughts and floods, for instance, harm product production. However, irrigation, flood control, and drainage schemes can help to mitigate these negative conditions to some extent.

Agriculture productivity can only be improved to a certain extent by increasing cropping intensity, changing cropping patterns, improving seeds of high yielding varieties, cultivating practices, and having better post-harvest equipment available, among other things. State Government is trying to re-orient agriculture through diversification policy and other measures.


In Bihar, agriculture is by far the most common private occupation. The goal of the agriculture production system should be to maximize the income of and owing and landless rural populace to improve their livelihood. The vulnerability to income and consumption shocks makes it imperative to develop a formal agriculture insurance mechanism to cope with such risks. The animal and fisheries resource department maintains the administrative control of different programs launched under the Animal husbandry sector, dairy development, and Fisheries.

The present milk production of the state is six thousand five hundred and sixteen. 6516 thousand MT per year. It has been target to take this production level up to around one lakh and thirty-five (10035) thousand MT per year by two thousand seventeen (2017) and to one lakh four thousand eight hundred and sixty-seven (14867), thousand MT per year by two thousand twenty-two (2022). The milk processing capacity is presently twenty thousand and sixty thousand liters per day which have been targeted to eight thousand two hundred sixty (8260) thousand liter per day by the year two thousand and seventeen (2017) and one lakh three thousand one hundred and sixty (13160) thousand liter by the year two thousand twenty-two.

Presently the egg production In the state is one lakh one thousand and two lakhs per annum which has been targeted to reach twenty-one lakhs six thousand(216000) lakhs per annum by the year two thousand and seventeen (2017) and twenty-three lakhs four thousand (234000) lakhs per an um by the year two thousand and twenty-two (2022).

The present meat production of the state is two hundred and eighteen 218 thousand tons per annum which have been targeted to increase to one thousand three hundred and fourteen (1314) thousand tons by the year two thousand and seventeen and one thousand four hundred and twenty three-point five. (1423.5) thousand tons per annum by the year two thousand and twenty-two (2022). The current fish manufacture of two-point eighty-eight 2.88 lakh MT is targeted to increase to eight point eight six (8.86) lakh MT in the year two thousand and seventeen and ten-point two five lakh (10.25) lakhs MT in two thousand and twenty-two. Animal and fisheries, resource department maintains the administrative control of different programs launched under animal husbandry sector, Dairy development and fisheries sector.

Its activities, in brief, covers animals health care, livestock product, Fisheries products, dairy products, and development, disease diagnostic program, and animals welfare by implementing the Prevention of cruelty to animals, Act” to name a few. Cooperative societies (including cooperative banks), cooperative Processing Societies, and Industrial Cooperatives.

Warehouse corporations, a land development bank, and a cooperative marketing federation are all under command. All officials assisting in the cooperative division are under the command of the commanding officer. All buildings occupied by the cooperating department are under the administrative control of the cooperating department.


The cooperative movement aims at the all-around economic and social development of farmers and people mainly from deprived sections by organizing and mobilizing them for self-help and mutual aid through co-operative that is growth with justice. Some of the cooperative principles are open and voluntary membership, democratic Administration, Disposal of Surplus about patronage and the common good, cooperative Education, the cooperative among cooperatives. Previously, the forest department was a branch of the revenue department. With the increase of work in the forest branch, a separate department of the forest was set up vide government resolution.

Later on, the responsibility of protection and development was given to that department so its name was changed to “forest and Environmental Department” after the year nineteen eighty-six (1986). In the year two thousand and two(2002) department name was changed to “Environment, forest and climate change department “ in the year two thousand and eighteen (2018).as this department has been made the nodal department to coordinate with other line departments of the state for addressing the issue related to the climate change. The principal objective of the department. To protect and improve the natural environment including forests, wildlife, wetlands, ambiance, biodiversity and to rehabilitate the natural ecological system (ecosystem). To crate biological resources for catering to various needs of the people on a sustainable basis.

To increase tree cover outside the forest to achieve the goal of adequate greenery in the state as envisaged in the National Forest Policy. To implement the provisions under various Acts/Rules related to forest, wildlife, and environment. To strive to achieve the overall goal of the National Forest Policy nineteen eighty-eight 1988 concerning the state of Bihar.

The state of Bihar shares the National vision of sustainable management of forests to meet the needs of present and future generations. The vision for each state includes the following.

Bringing the vegetative (forest and tree) cover to seventeen percent 17% of the total geographical area of the state by the year two thousand and twenty-two 2022, through afforestation and land-use diversification. Management of Natural forest and development of rainwater harvesting structures. Rehabilitation of natural forest with priority to local species.

Restoration, conservation, and sustainable use of moisture and biological resources maintaining the rich Biodiversity in the state.

Improvement in service by using information management system IMS, Geographical information system GIS, and other modern technologies and scientific knowledge. Establishing and operational using a well-equipped climate change knowledge Center. To cope up with the situation arising out of climate change by measures of mitigation and adaptation. Development of a standard operating system to manage the man wild animal conflict by establishing with the neighboring states.

Saving the endangered aquatic mammal, the dolphin, by establishing a National Dolphin Research center at Patna to provide knowledge input and support to the efforts for this cause. To reduce emissions as well as provide a sanitary environment for the state’s residents. Management and conservation of forest and water through an ecosystem approach. Development of infrastructure for marketing of wood-based industries and minor forest produce. The income of farmers grows as a result of agroforestry.


Sugarcane department was first created in the year nineteen thirty-five 1935 and sugarcane factories mostly established on nineteen not four 1904 at Marhaura in the Saran district which was also the first sugar mill in the country. The function of the department is the development of sugarcane industries, production of sugar, biofuel, and energies and to protect the interest of sugarcane growers. The department’s function is regulatory as well as development in nature. The department we headed by cane commissioner, assistant cane commissioner, came inspector and assistant cane inspector.

The vision of the department is to execute the Bihar Sugarcane Regulatory of supply and Purchase Act nineteen and eighteen two 1982. The main focus of this department is to promote quality sugarcane cultivation and ensure timely payment to farmers. The department also monitors the payment of sugarcane price to the farmers and ensure that the interest of cane growers is protected. One of the important departments of the Bihar administration is the water resources department, previously recognized as the Irrigation Department.

It safeguards the state’s right to share water from interstate rivers and basins. Creation of Irrigation potential through construction, maintenance, and regulation of major and medium irrigation schemes. Construction and maintenance of embankment, revetment in selected portions of river banks, land spurs and other necessary flood protection works. Drainage of flooded areas. Providing optimum benefits of the major and medium irrigation projects to the beneficiaries committees through administrative control over command area development agencies. Development and operation of embankment dams, revetment in selected sections of river banks, land sours, and other essential flood prevention activities are among the flood management projects completed so far.

Bihar government notified minor irrigation as a separate “Department” in December, in nineteen seventy-eight 1978. Initially, an irrigation scheme having cost up to rupees ten thousand 10,000 was classified as Minor Irrigation Scheme, but according to criteria laid down by the planning commission of India, effective from First April nineteen seventy-nine 1st April 1979, all irrigation projects, both surface water having cultivable command area (CCA) up to two thousand 2000 hectares are classified as Minor Irrigation scheme. The department is overseen by two autonomous bodies: “Bihar Hill Area Lift Irrigation Corporation (BHALCO)” and “Bihar Jal Vikas Nigam.” In July 1986 the government of Bihar decided to abolish “Bihar Jal Vikas Nigam” and created a “Tube well Wing” to develop a network of tube wells in the state with the help of the World Bank.


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